As the gunman behind the standoff at a Colorado Springs Planned Parenthood in which three people died and nine were injured was named as Robert Lewis Dear, a 57-year-old man from North Carolina, President Barack Obama said on Saturday the US had “to do something about the easy accessibility of weapons of war on our streets to people who have no business wielding them”.
“Period,” the president added, in a statement released by the White House. “Enough is enough.”
Officials speaking off the record gave the suspect’s identity to news outlets late on Friday. On Saturday morning, the city of Colorado Springs confirmed Dear’s identity and released a booking photo taken at the El Paso County criminal justice center.
No other detail was immediately available, including a motive for the attack which police said on Friday was carried out with a “long gun”, usually a reference to a rifle or shotgun.
“We don’t have any information on this individual’s mentality, or his ideas or ideology,” Colorado Springs police lieutenant Catherine Buckley told reporters.
In his statement, Obama said: “We don’t yet know what this particular gunman’s so-called motive was for shooting 12 people, or for terrorising an entire community.
“What we do know is that he killed a cop in the line of duty, along with two of the citizens that police officer was trying to protect. We know that law enforcement saved lives, as so many of them do every day, all across America. And we know that more Americans and their families had fear forced upon them.”
Planned Parenthood has, however, been at the centre of a fierce political storm – as fierce as that over the gun control measures for which Obama continues to call – over videos, released by an anti-abortion group, which purport to show officials discussing the sale of foetal tissue. Calls to defund the organisation have proliferated among Republicans in Congress and on the 2016 presidential campaign trail.
Colorado Springs, the location of an attack on a Planned Parenthood clinic that left three people dead, is a centre of rightwing Christian culture with a “wild west mentality” when it comes to guns.
The attack, by a lone gunman carrying a rifle or shotgun, took place at a clinic that is the site of regular anti-abortion protests by the city’s pro-life Christian groups.
Planned Parenthood, aware of hostility about their work, recently moved to the new facility, hoping it would provide more security for staff.
The building has been likened to a fortress by anti-abortion campaigners and Friday’s attacks revealed that it is equipped with “safe rooms” for staff to shelter in the event of such an event. It also has an extensive security camera system.
With anti-abortion policies supported by many Republican presidential candidates such as Ted Cruz, Rand Paul and Jeb Bush, rhetoric attacking Planned Parenthood and other such organisations is not hard to find in the city.
Last spring, following the gruesome attack on a Colorado woman who had her unborn-baby ripped from her womb with a knife, state representative and Springs resident Gordon Klingenschmitt said the attack was “the curse of God upon America for our sin of not protecting innocent children in the womb”.
Colorado’s second largest city, with a population of 445,800, has built itself a reputation as a playground for white, pro-gun, pro-life Evangelical Christians. It is also home to one army base, two air force bases, and an air force.
Colorado Springs featured in the documentary film Jesus Camp, where evangelical Christian children were taught to engage in anti-abortion protests. Two of the film’s lead characters travelled to the New Life Church in Colorado Springs, where they met church pastor Ted Haggard, a one-time leader of the National Association of Evangelicals who had weekly communications with president George W Bush. Haggard resigned from his position later that same yearfollowing revelations that he purchased methamphetamine and the services of a male prostitute.
AdvertisementThe city’s pro-gun contingent flexed its muscles in 2014 with an unprecedented recall election, ousting state senator John Morse. The recall was primarily motivated by new gun control laws in Colorado – followingthe Aurora cinema shootings in Denver– which banned magazines holding more than 15 rounds, and demanded a universal background check for all gun purchases.
As the first state to legalise abortion and the first to implement a regulated marijuana market, Colorado is a state that doesn’t take kindly to government infringements on personal rights.
Three weeks before Friday’s Planned Parenthood shooting, a man was seen brandishing a rifle while walking down the streets of Colorado Springs on Halloween morning. A concerned citizen called the 911 Emergency Line to notify the police, but was told by the operator: “Well, it is an open carry state, so he can have a weapon with him or walking around with it,” referencing state laws that allow the brandishing of a firearm in public.
Shortly after the call the man shot and killed three people before being shot dead by police.
Following the Halloween shooting, Colorado Springs resident Jessie Pocock organised a vigil with her fellow citizens, who expressed a mix of grief and outrage at the deaths. She feels that there is a “wild west mentality” when it comes to guns in Colorado Springs.
“It’s important that we can go to the grocery store and not be worried about someone randomly shooting us down on the streets, and right now that is not the case in Colorado Springs, said Pocock, who lives close to the abortion clinic. “You’re not safe on the streets here, and that is a problem.”
Colorado Springs’ year of violence began last January when a bomb detonated outside the local chapter of the NAACP. No one was harmed in the attack, but the incident put many in Colorado Springs on edge.
“I’m a little overwhelmed with the war zone that is my home,” says Pocock
Leading pro-life advocates are today responding to a tragic shooting in Colorado Springs near and at a Planned Parenthood abortion clinic that has reportedly injured multiple police officers and civilians. While Planned Parenthood does not appear to be the target, the gunman involved reportedly hid inside the abortion facility to escape police and has been involved in a shootout with them.
David Daleiden, who produced the shocking videos showing Planned Parenthood abortion clinics selling aborted babies and their body parts, strongly condemned the shooting.
“The Center for Medical Progress does not support vigilante violence against abortion providers. There are people at Planned Parenthood who I still consider friends and my thoughts and prayers are with them at this time for no one to be injured.”
“We only visited the Denver clinic in Colorado. PPRM CEO Vicki Cowart says Planned Parenthood still doesn’t know the full details of what is going on in Colorado Springs.”
Meanwhile, National Right to Life condemned the shooting in an email to LifeNews:
“National Right to Life, which represents 50 state affiliates and more than 3,000 local chapters, unequivocally condemns unlawful activities and acts of violence regardless of motivation. The pro-life movement works to protect the right to life and increase respect for human life. The unlawful use of violence is directly contrary to that goal.”
The National Right to Life Committee has always been involved in peaceful, legal activities to protect human lives threatened by abortion, infanticide and euthanasia. We always have and will continue to oppose any form of violence to fight the violence of abortion. NRLC has had a policy of forbidding violence or illegal activity by its staff, directors, officers, affiliated state organizations, and chapters. NRLC’s sole purpose is to protect innocent human life.
NRLC will continue to work through educational and legislative activities to ensure the right to life for unborn children, people with disabilities and the elderly. NRLC will continue to work for peaceful solutions to aid mothers and their unborn children. These solutions involve helping women and their children and do not involve violence against anyone.
Operation Rescue and the Christian Defense Coalition are denouncing the violence that appears to be in progress at a Planned Parenthood abortion facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Details are still sketchy regarding the motives of the perpetrator and we urge the public not to draw any conclusions until police can make an official determination.
“Operation Rescue unequivocally deplores and denounces all violence at abortion clinics and has a long history of working through peaceful channels to advocate on behalf of women and their babies. We express deep concern for everyone involved and are praying for the safety of those at the Planned Parenthood office and for law enforcement personnel. We pray this tragic situation can be quickly resolved without further injury to anyone,” said Troy Newman President of Operation Rescue.
“Although we don’t know the reasons for the shooting near the Planned Parenthood in Colorado Springs today, the pro-life movement is praying for the safety of all involved and as a movement we have always unequivocally condemned all forms of violence at abortion clinics. We must continually as a nation stand against violence on all levels.,” said Rev. Patrick J. Mahoney, Director of the Christian Defense Coalition, based in Washington, D.C.
Meanwhile, Father Frank Pavone of Priests for Life also issued a statement to LifeNews.com:
Information is very sketchy about the currently active shooting situation in Colorado Springs. The Planned Parenthood was the address given in the initial call to the police, but we still do not know what connection, if any, the shooting has to do with Planned Parenthood or abortion.
COLORADO SPRINGS, Colo. - The suspect in a deadly shooting at a Colorado Springs Planned Parenthood clinic was named on Saturday as Robert L. Dear, 57, the Colorado Springs Police public affairs' section said in a Tweet.
The gunman who stormed the clinic on Friday killed three people and wounded nine others before surrendering to police after a bloody siege lasting several hours inside the facility, authorities said.
Local news media reported that Dear was being held without bail.
The rampage, which took place at a clinic that provides women's health services including abortions, was believed to be the first fatal attack on a U.S. abortion provider in six years. Police have not discussed the suspect's motives.
The assailant in Colorado Springs, Colorado's second largest city, was armed with a rifle when he entered the clinic - a site repeatedly targeted for protests by anti-abortion activists - and opened fire shortly before noon on Friday, authorities said.
University of Colorado Colorado Springs (UCCS) police officer Garrett Swasey, who was killed when a …Police swarming the scene pursued the assailant into the building, trading gunfire with the suspect as authorities tracked their movements from room to room by watching live video feeds from security cameras mounted inside.
Officers closing in on the gunman managed to finally talk him into giving himself up inside, and he was taken into custody more than five hours after the violence began.
Those killed were a police officer and two civilians, Colorado Springs Police Chief Peter Carey told reporters on Friday. All nine surviving victims - five police officers and four civilians - were listed in good condition at area hospitals, he said.
As he has done frequently in cases of recent mass shootings in the United States, President Barack Obama urged measures to make it harder for criminals to get guns.
"We have to do something about the easy accessibility of weapons of war on our streets to people who have no business wielding them. Period," Obama said in a statement on Saturday. "Enough is enough."
The dead policeman in Friday's shooting was identified as Garrett Swasey, 44, a campus police officer for the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs who joined city police in responding to the first reports of shots fired, authorities said. The dead civilians were not named.
At least eight workers at clinics providing abortions have been killed since 1977, according to the National Abortion Federation - most recently in 2009, when doctor George Tiller was shot to death at church in Wichita, Kansas.
It was in 2008, when Mumbai couple Haresh and Niketa Mehta petitioned the Bombay High Court to allow them to abort their 26-week-old foetus who had been diagnosed with a heart defect, that the fraught issue of the legal limit for abortion in an age of rapidly advancing medical technology, first burst on to the national scene.
The court did not grant the couple’s plea, saying medical experts had not categorically stated that the child would “suffer from serious handicaps”. It also said that their plea for a change in the law regulating abortions in India could only be addressed by the legislature.
Seven years on, the amendments to the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971, that their case triggered, are still in the works — only to be challenged anew by a 14-year-old rape victim. The girl’s petition to the Supreme Court seeking permission for abortion beyond 20 weeks has been accepted as a special case, which is not to be used as a precedent to allow abortions beyond 20 weeks.
The draft Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2014, on which the Health Ministry invited comments last year, provides for abortion beyond 20 weeks under defined conditions. As per the draft law, the decision to allow abortion between 20 and 24 weeks can be taken “in good faith” by a healthcare provider if, among other conditions, the pregnancy involves substantial risks to the mother or child, or if it is “alleged by the pregnant woman to have been caused by rape”.
A revision of the legal limit for abortion is long overdue. The process of rethinking the 44-year-old MTP law has already taken years, but the issues go beyond the slowness of the process.
In the decades since the law was first enacted, the science on the subject has made enormous leaps — with the advent of ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and foetal monitoring devices, predicting the health of the baby has become more accurate and sophisticated than anything that was conceivable then.
But even that is not the full India obstetrics story.
Sexual crimes, multiple pregnancies, the lack of decision making powers among women, social taboos and the crippling shortage of trained midwives and doctors have all contributed to the creation of a complicated situation in which a large number of abortions take place under the radar, carried out by quacks.
It is to tackle this problem that the proposed amendments to the MTP Act seek to allow Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha practitioners to carry out abortions, albeit only through medical means and not surgical ones. In a sense, say those involved in the drafting of the amendment Bill, it is a return to the concept of Registered Medical Practitioners with slight tweaking — they should be called, perhaps, “registered health providers”. Many countries, in fact, allow nurses to do first trimester abortions, that is, when the pregnancy is less than 12 weeks old.
Where the proposed amendments do move forward is in their reasons for allowing abortion up to 24 weeks of pregnancy. Medical experts rule out any safety concerns about the mother, and deem 20 weeks to be too small a window, especially when it is not before 18 weeks that foetal abnormalities start to show up.
Extending the time up to which an abortion can be legally performed is not just a question of ensuring the health of the mother and baby. It is also about ensuring access to a qualified doctor, a hygienic establishment and proper medical care for the mother during and after the abortion. It is not as though the 20-week ceiling stops expectant mothers with older pregnancies from undergoing abortion. And more often than not, she does so in the dark — in surreptitious, dangerous ways that puts her at serious risk, and may even kill her.
That the decision to have or not have a baby is not a mechanical one — merely about the mother’s physical wellbeing — is accepted as a principle in the proposed new Bill. It accepts that the anguish caused by pregnancy resulting from rape “may be presumed to constitute a grave injury to the mental health of the pregnant woman”. That, in essence, is also the spirit of the Supreme Court’s “flexible” order on the plea of the young girl.
Niketa was less lucky. Soon after failing to get relief, she miscarried.
Abortions across registered centres in Maharashtra dropped 15% in 201415, an RTI query has revealed, in contrast to a rise in the numbers over the five years before that.
The government believes the aggressive campaigns on use of contraception are finally bearing result, while medical professionals are more cautious.
"Overall, it is happy news if the number of abortions have come down. Awareness is definitely on the rise about the use of contraception and MTP (medical termination of pregnancy) options, but nagging issues affecting a woman's access to safe abortion in the state today cannot be overlooked," said Dr Suchitra Pandit of the Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI). Statistics, accessed from the state's Directorate of Health Services by activist Chetan Kothari, show in 2014-15, abortions in the most preferred first trimester dipped by 13%, and a substantial 36% in the second trimester. In all, from 2.08 lakh abortions in 2013-14, the number dipped to 1.78lakh in 2014-15.
The decline in abortion numbers in the state is in stark contrast to the previous years, when up to 35% increase in medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) cases was reported in 2012-2013 or 17% in 2011-12.
Assistant director Dr N D Deshmukh, who oversees the MTP services for the state, aid the dip is encouraging all the way . "We are offering intra-uterine contraceptive devices just after delivery. Over 15,000 women have been implanted with one this year and t lasts for a decade. One has to understand hat 80-85% abortion cases are due to contraceptive failure and we are taking that problem away gradually ," he added.
But many gynaecologists TOI spoke to echoed what is being said in research papers hat pregnant women in Maharashtra are finding it difficult to access MTP services, particularly in the second trimester. Several doctors said the situation is grim in rural pockets. Second trimester abortions fell from 15,048 in 2013-14 to 9,615 in 2014-15.
Abortion during the second trimester or post-12-week pregnancies, when the sex of a foetus can be determined, came under the state's radar in 2012 when a major female foeticide racket was busted in Parli, Beed. A crackdown began on both ultrasonography and MTP centres. "State officials often tried to jointly implement the MTP and Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique (PCPNDT) Act creating a huge confusion," said Dr Gorakh Mandrupkar, a Sangli doctor who has been crusading against the mixed implementation of the laws.
A gynaecologist from Beed said officials believe every MTP in the second trimester is sex selective, though only 6-9% of abortions in the country are believed to be so. The anomaly scan that detects major physical abnor malities in a foetus can only be carried out between 18 to 20 weeks, which leaves a woman very little time to decide within the cutoff time of 20 weeks for MTP , he added.
Vinoj Manning, country director of Ipas, a non-profit that works for women's reproductive rights, said it is often the most vulnerable and poor women who are pushed to seek abortion late. "Even today, more than half of all abortions in the country are illegal, and drop in reported numbers means there are many more women who are being driven to illegal and unsafe providers increasing the chances of mortality and morbidity," he said. Pritam Potdar, associated with NGO Samyak that works for the rights of urban poor women, said studies in Marathwada and western Maharashtra have shown that women are routinely being denied abortion services. "Even state-run civil hospitals are turning away women because doctors fear elaborate paper work, record-keeping, or plan harassment at the hands of officials," she said. Potdar narrated the incident of a Latur woman, who was booked and jailed for six months on charges of killing her child even as she had a spontaneous abortion. "The environment is hardly conducive for women to demand MTP rights," she added.
Anne (not her real name) is almost out of options. The 40-year-old Filipina has been laying low in Doha after giving birth to her daughter at home in Qatar last winter.
In doing so, she broke two of Qatar’s laws – delivering a baby at home, and giving birth to an illegitimate child.
Sharing her story with Doha News, the former domestic worker said that despite her best efforts, she knows all roads will eventually lead to jail.
When Anne turns herself in, she will become one of the nearly 100 expat women a year who are arrested and jailed in Qatar for giving birth to a baby out of wedlock.
When we meet, Anne is cradling her fourth child, an eight-month-old girl with an engaging smile who is wearing a black headband and a black and white summer dress.
Anne has three grown-up children who live in the Philippines with her husband, from whom she is estranged. She’s worked as a domestic helper in Qatar for three years, and it was here she met her boyfriend, her daughter’s father.
Although Anne is separated from her husband, they are still married because divorce is not legal for Catholics in the Philippines. The only option would be an annulment, which is both too expensive, and would render her other three children illegitimate, she said.
Anne’s Catholic faith and Qatar’s strict abortion laws made seeking an illegal termination impossible. “To me, it would have been a double sin,” she said.
Though Anne could have tried to leave Qatar when she learned she was pregnant, she said her initial reaction was denial. Later, when she began showing, she feared asking her sponsor for an exit permit.
When she moved here, she paid a Qatari for her visa, an illegal transaction known colloquially in the Filipino community as a “freelance visa.” By paying for a sponsor, she essentially bought the right to work illegally as an un-sponsored maid, on her own terms.
“I didn’t think he’d have let me go,” she said about not asking for an exit permit. “And also, I wanted to stay and work. I wanted to help my youngest daughter to finish her studies.”
Extra-marital sex and adultery are illegal under Qatari law, and giving birth to an illegitimate baby results in a 12-month jail sentence on average, embassy officials have said.
While it’s understood that many unmarried women who find themselves in a predicament like Anne’s leave the country to avoid prosecution, some stay hoping that they will not get in trouble with the authorities. Others are unable to leave because their sponsor will not give them an exit permit.
Doha News was contacted by another woman in a similar position last year, who was desperate for information about the fate that awaited her. She too had difficulty obtaining an exit permit and also wanted to remain in Qatar to continue earning money.
Here is part of her email:
I want to know if you have any idea about the laws here in Qatar regarding giving birth without a marriage certificate and single? All I want is for my baby to be safe and not be taken away from me. I’m worried and I’m scared of that. I’m alone here and I don’t have relatives…
Please let me know if you know of anything about cases same as mine. I just want to know what to do and where to go to protect my baby.
According to her embassy, she is now serving a one-year jail term with her baby.
Many women whose sponsors refuse to let them leave Qatar run away and seek help from their embassy – but most still land in jail, as the deportation center which they are required to pass through carries out regular pregnancy tests, an embassy source told us.
Others are excused from jail time if the father of the baby agrees to marry the mother, said Dr. Najeeb al-Nuaimi, a criminal lawyer and former justice minister of Qatar. All that’s really needed is the promise to marry – the couple can always leave the country and not say ‘I do,’ he told Doha News.
Finally, a further group of women remain in Qatar because they believe that staying here – and the resulting punishment they face – is a better option than the poverty they might face back home.
Some of these women choose not to tell their families that they are in jail, Almonguera said.
”These women ask us not to notify their families, so we don’t, unless their families ring up inquiring about them, and we don’t know what else to tell them.”
Giving birth alone
It is unclear whether Anne told anyone back home of her predicament. Anne’s boyfriend returned to the Philippines shortly after she found out she was pregnant, leaving her to manage alone.
She was also alone when the time came for her to deliver, in her bedroom in the home where she was being paid to provide childcare.
“I remained in my room when I went into labor, because I knew I’d get in trouble if I gave birth in the hospital,” Anne said.
“I’d done two years’ training as a midwife, so I knew about childbirth – but of course this was the first time I’d used my skills on myself. I didn’t feel scared. I felt the whole time that I would deliver her safely.”
Anne took her baby to a private medical clinic for a check-up afterwards, and, suspicions aroused, the clinic questioned her about the circumstances of the birth.
When she admitted the truth, the doctor suggested she call her relatives, a couple, in Qatar to ask if they’d consider pretending to be the parents of her daughter.
“I did call them, but they refused,” she said.
Presenting her marriage certificate to a hospital so that she could obtain a proper birth certificate for her child was also not an option.
The authorities check the immigration records of unaccompanied mothers to find out whether they visited their home countries around the time of conception, or whether their husband visited them in Qatar around the same time, an embassy source has told us.
Soon after giving birth, Anne’s residence permit expired, and, running out of options, she sought help from her embassy, which advised her to surrender herself to the police.
Despite this advice, Anne has chosen to continue to work illegally in Qatar to save some money, ahead of the jail term which she knows is inevitable. She won’t disclose when she intends to turn herself in.
“I feel very nervous about going to prison – very stressed. And my poor baby – what will it be like for her, living in jail? My poor baby.”
To get an idea of how common pregnancy out of wedlock is in Qatar, Doha News contacted three embassies which together represent a large percentage of the expat community in Qatar – the embassies of the Philippines, Nepal and India.
On average, three Filipina women a month visit their embassy for help after becoming pregnant by a man who is not their husband, Almonguera, the embassy’s Vice Consul, said.
“Here at the embassy, we just give them options. We tell them they will face jail. Some want to delay, but we tell them it will definitely happen in the end, so it’s best to face it now.
If they choose not to surrender to the police immediately, the embassy requires them to sign an affidavit to say that it’s their decision to leave, and that they were advised against it.”
Harihar Kant Poudel, Second Secretary of the Nepal embassy, told us that an average of five Nepalese women here are arrested for illegitimate birth each month.
He added that many Nepalese women in Qatar take drastic action when they discover they have unintentionally become pregnant:
“They purchase medicines from our country for an illegal abortion. They have the abortion here, but if it doesn’t work, or they have serious complications, they go to hospital, where they are then arrested.”
Meanwhile, the Indian Embassy has confirmed that there are currently two Indian women serving jail sentences in Qatar for illegal birth, a tally which Second Secretary Sasi Kumar described as “low.”
When asked why this was the case, given Qatar’s large Indian expat population, Kumar offered no explanation.
Mothers jailed for illegitimate birth in Qatar are able to keep their babies with them in the prison.
The babies sleep beside them in their beds in shared rooms, and they are provided with baby milk, clothing and blankets by the prison and by visiting embassy officials.
The women have access to a television and newspapers, and are visited monthly by embassy staff. If they have savings, they are able to buy telephone cards, in addition to a monthly phone call to their families.
They are also able to buy extra food and snacks, to supplement the food provided free by the prison. Medical facilities are provided for the mothers and their children, Almonguera says.
The law governing how Qatar’s jails are run, Law No 3 of 2009 on the Regulation of Penal and Correctional Institutions, provides further insight into life in Qatar’s prisons.
It states that prisoners are allowed to shower with water and soap at least once each week, but that female prisoners’ hair must not be cut, unless for medical reasons. It also says that they should have an hour of physical activity a day.
Despite the law requiring “programmes of educational seminars and lectures as well as other entertainment programmes,” officials at the Philippines embassy were unable to confirm whether their nationals have access to these options.
The law also discusses the rules governing births in prison, and adds that women can keep their children with them up until the age of two.
If they choose not to keep their baby with them, the government will either give the child to the father or anyone else with custody rights, or place the child in a foster home and arrange regular visits with the mother, according to the law.
• A policeman was killed in a standoff with a gunman in the US state of Colorado, police said.
• Police arrested a gunman who stormed an abortion clinic in Colorado Springs
• He opened fire with a rifle which left at least 11 people injured
LOS ANGELES: A policeman was killed in a standoff with a gunman in the US state of Colorado, police said.
The gunman, who injured at least 11 people in a clinic, has been taken into custody, according to police.
Five police officers are among the injured, police chief Pete Carey told a press conference, Xinhua news agency reported.
Police have determined that the unidentified objects the shooter brought into the building did not contain explosives, the chief said.
"There's no continuing peril to the city of Colorado Springs," Mayor John Suthers said in a statement following the apprehension of the gunman.
The attacker entered the building shortly before noon and was detained around 5 p.m.
US shall introspect and find out the reasons for such terrorism.Terrorism is to be condemned wherever it happens.
President Barack Obama was briefed on the situation by his national security staff, the White House said during the standoff.
"We don't yet know the full circumstances and motives behind this criminal action, and we don't yet know if Planned Parenthood was in fact the target of this attack," Vicki Cowart, president and CEO of Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountains, said in a statement.
Planned Parenthood is a clinic that offers a range of women's health services.