Other, more detailed, studies in the academic literature have focused more clearly on the gendered nature of the governance regimes and the institutions that shape the legal and social systems in these countries. In particular, Metcalfe (2011, p. 131) examined human resource development (HRD) in Arab states, looking to analyse the questions of "what are the social and cultural factors that shape gender and HRD systems in three Arab Gulf States (Bahrain, UAE and Saudi Arabia), and how are they linked to women's current social and economic status in the Gulf?" This analysis focused on the development of a new framework for conceptualising gender in the Gulf States and demonstrated how national HRD strategies could help to empower women in society through partnership with civil society. However, this study did demonstrate that women in Saudi Arabia still require support to develop feminist agency in order to overcome embedded social and legal barriers to their activities (Metcalfe, 2011). The other main academic study in this area focused on the cultural value based approach used by the government of Saudi Arabia to apply its own conservative cultural values to aspects of society including education, technology and policy formation (Al Rashedi et al, 2015). This study used statistical techniques to demonstrate that political and legal interventions play a major role in supporting the development of a social role for women, including investment in education for women, but that these interventions still tend to limit the overall involvement and empowerment of women, ensuring a male dominated society.
Arabic women - status of health and treatment