Whilst the situation is complex in some organisations and industries, in others it appears much simpler, but dominated by men. French and Strachan (2009; 2015) examined the case of two male dominated industries, transport and construction, in Australia, a country with a firm equal opportunity legislation in place. The results of their analysis of the transport industry indicates "a correlation between some approaches to equal opportunity and increased numbers of women in some areas", but a lack of involvement of women in management or senior roles regardless of the equal opportunity initiatives implemented (French and Strachan, 2009, p. 78). In contrast, there is no evidence of engagement with equal employment issues in the construction industry as women are employed on individual basis without institutional commitment to equality between the genders, leading to few women being involved in senior roles in the industry (French and Strachan, 2015). This somewhat reflects Konrad and Linnehan's (1995) finding that the human resources management (HRM) structures can either be 'identity-conscious' or 'identity-blind'. Of these, the identity-blind structures support discrimination by failing to consider the disadvantages women may face, and thus identity-conscious structures are needed to support the employment status of women and other disadvantaged groups, particularly in highly gendered industries. This underlines the importance of rejecting a gender neutral approach to equal opportunity, particularly in industries which are already characterised by strong gender bias or inequality.
Women health in the Saudi Arabian society